What is the Bologna Process?

What is the Bologna Process? Higher education needs to be restructured in the 21st century due to economic, social, cultural, political, scientific, and technological developments. The demand for higher education increases in information society, requiring the development of accountable and transparent processes in higher education systems. New technologies make it possible to utilize new materials in education and research, and increase the importance of flexible learning methods and lifelong learning. Moreover, the increasing demand for higher education in globalizing economies increases the importance of the relationship between business and institutions of higher education, as competition drives up quality in education. The increase in the volume of trade in goods and services, brought about by globalization, leads all stakeholders in the field of higher education, and universities in particular, to make efforts to undertake changes required by this process. The field of higher education has become open to international competition to an unprecedented degree. As a result of all these developments, higher education has been going through a very important process of transformation in the last two decades in almost all world regions. Countries started to create regional collaboration initiatives to compare their higher education systems with one another, and to develop joint solutions to similar problems. The most comprehensive of these initiatives is the Bologna Process initiated to create a common area in Europe to better compete with the economic development in the US and Japan. The Bologna Process was initiated to create a comparable, competitive, and transparent higher education area in member countries, and the objectives are amended as new needs arise and depending on the practices of countries. To this end, the Bologna Process is a continuously improved dynamic process. In other words, the Bologna Process is not a fixed system, but a process that constantly develops.